On this paper, we argue that there was a powerful hyperlink between the surge of help for the Socialist Occasion after World Struggle I (WWI) and the next emergence of Fascism in Italy. We first develop a supply of variation in Socialist help throughout Italian municipalities within the 1919 election primarily based on battle casualties from the realm. We present that these casualties are unrelated to a battery of political, financial and social variables earlier than the battle and had a significant impression on Socialist help (partly as a result of the Socialists had been the primary anti-war political motion). Our foremost result’s that this increase to Socialist help (that’s “exogenous” to the prior political leaning of the municipality) led to higher native Fascist exercise as measured by native occasion branches and Fascist political violence (squadrismo), and to considerably bigger vote share of the Fascist Occasion within the 1924 election. We doc that the rise within the vote share of the Fascist Occasion was not on the expense of the Socialist Occasion and as an alternative got here from right-wing events, thus supporting our interpretation that center-right and right-wing voters coalesced across the Fascist Occasion due to the “pink scare”.
That’s from a new paper by Daron Acemoglu, Giuseppe De Feo, Giacomo De Luca, and Gianluca Russo.